Cell Signaling Technology

Product Pathways - Chromatin Regulation / Epigenetics

HMGN2 (D9B9) XP® Rabbit mAb #9437

No. Size Price
9437S 100 µl ( 10 western blots ) ¥3,580.00 现货查询 购买询价
9437 carrier free & custom formulation / quantityemail request
Applications Dilution Species-Reactivity Sensitivity MW (kDa) Isotype
W 1:1000 Human,Mouse,Rat,Monkey, Endogenous 17 Rabbit IgG
IP 1:200
IF-IC 1:6400

Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.

Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry),

Homology

Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Bovine, Dog, Pig, Guinea Pig, Horse,

Specificity / Sensitivity

HMGN2 (D9B9) XP® Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of total HMGN2 protein. This antibody does not cross-react with other HMGN proteins.

HMGN2 (D9B9) XP® Rabbit mAb兔单抗能够检测内源性HMGN2总蛋白水平。该抗体不能与其它HMGN蛋白发生交叉反应。

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Asp74 of human HMGN2 protein.

该单克隆抗体是采用合成的与人源HMGN2蛋白Asp74残基周围序列相对应的肽段免疫动物而生产的。

IF-IC

IF-IC

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa cells using HMGN2 (D9B9) XP® Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DY-554 phalloidin (red).

使用HMGN2 (D9B9) XP® Rabbit mAb 兔单抗(绿色)标记,共聚焦免疫荧光分析HeLa细胞。DY-554 phalloidin标记微丝蛋白(红色)。

Western Blotting

Western Blotting

Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using HMGN2 (D9B9) XP® Rabbit mAb.

使用HMGN2 (D9B9) XP® Rabbit mAb兔单抗,免疫印迹(Western blot)分析不同细胞中HMGN2 (D9B9)蛋白水平。

Background

High mobility group (HMG) proteins are a superfamily of abundant and ubiquitous nuclear proteins that bind DNA without sequence specificity and induce structural changes to the chromatin fiber to regulate access to the underlying DNA. The HMGN family of proteins, which includes five members (HMGN1-5), is characterized by the presence of several conserved protein domains: a positively charged domain, a nucleosome binding domain, and an acidic C-terminal chromatin-unfolding domain (1,2). HMGN proteins function in transcriptional regulation and are recruited to gene promoters by transcription factors, such as estrogen receptor α (ERα), serum responsive factor (SRF), and PITX2, where they can facilitate either gene activation or repression (3-5). HMGN proteins bind specifically to nucleosomal DNA and reduce the compaction of the chromatin fiber, in part by competing with linker histone H1 for nucleosome binding (6). In addition, HMGN proteins act to modulate local levels of post-translational histone modifications, decreasing phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 and histone H2A at Ser1 and increasing acetylation of histone H3 at Lys14 (7-9). HMGN proteins can also modulate the activity of several chromatin-remodeling factors and restrict nucleosome mobility (10).

HMGN2 (also known as HMG17) expression is tightly linked to cellular differentiation. HMGN2 is ubiquitous and highly expressed in all embryonic tissues. During mouse embryogenesis, expression is down-regulated throughout the embryo, except in committed, continuously renewing cell types undergoing active differentiation, such as the basal layer of the epithelium and kidney cells undergoing mesenchyme to epithelium transition (11,12). In addition to its function in regulating chromatin structure in the nucleus, HMGN2 also plays a role in innate immunity against bacterial pathogens and tumor cells. Leukocytes, which play a central role in the innate immune defense in mammals by secreting an array of antimicrobial proteins and peptides, secrete HMGN2 upon stimulation with interleukin 2 (IL-2). Following stimulation, HMGN2 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and is released into the extracellular environment (13). HMGN2, more specifically the alpha-helical domain (residues 18 to 48), shows strong antimicrobial activity towards multiple bacterial pathogens (13). In addition, the amino-terminus of HMGN2 has been shown to contain tumor homing activity, while the carboxy-terminal region inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis (14,15).

High mobility group (HMG)蛋白是一个大量和广泛的细胞核蛋白超级家族,该家族在没有序列特异性的情况下结合DNA,并且诱导染色质纤维的结构性改变从而调节潜在的DNA通路。HMGN 蛋白家族包括五种成员(HMGN1-5),它是以数种保守蛋白结构域存在为特征:一个正电荷区域、一个核小体结合区域和一个酸性的C端染色质-非折叠区域(1,2)。HMGN蛋白具有转录调节的功能,并且通过转录因子被招募到基因启动子,例如 estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)、serum responsive factor (SRF)和PITX2蛋白,在启动子区域能有助于基因的激活或抑制(3-5)。HMGN蛋白特异性结合到核小体结构的DNA,并且减少染色质纤维的压缩,对于核小体的结合部分程度上通过竞争histone H1(6)。此外,HMGN蛋白可以调节翻译后组蛋白修饰的局部水平,这减少了histone H3蛋白Ser10位点和histone H2A蛋白Ser1位点的磷酸化,以及增加了histone H3蛋白Lys14位点的乙酰化(7-9)。HMGN蛋白也能调节数个染色质重塑因子的活性和限制核小体移动(10)。

HMGN2 (也称为HMG17)蛋白表达是与细胞内分化紧密联系。在所有胚胎组织中HMGN2蛋白是个广泛和高度表达。在小鼠胚胎发育过程中,蛋白表达在整个胚胎都是下调的,除了在已确定的持续经历积极分化的自我更新细胞形态中,例如上皮细胞和肾脏细胞的基底层经历上皮间质的转变(11,12)。除了在调节细胞核内染色质结构的功能外,HMGN2蛋白也在针对细菌性病原体和肿瘤细胞的自身免疫中起到重要作用。在哺乳动物天然免疫防御中通过分泌大量抗菌的蛋白和多肽而起到重要作用的白细胞,它在interleukin 2 (IL-2)的刺激下分泌HMGN2蛋白。在刺激下,HMGN2蛋白从从细胞核中转移到细胞质中,并被释放进入细胞外环境(13)。HMGN2蛋白含有明确的 alpha-helical 区域 (residues 18 to 48),它显示对于多种细胞病原体的强烈的抗菌活性(13)。因此,研究显示HMGN2蛋白的氨基端包含肿瘤导向活性,而它的羧基端区域抑制肿瘤入侵和转移(14,15)。

  1. Hock, R. et al. (2007) Trends Cell Biol 17, 72-9.
  2. Gerlitz, G. Biochim Biophys Acta 1799, 80-5.
  3. Zhu, N. and Hansen, U. (2007) Mol Cell Biol 27, 8859-73.
  4. Amen, M. et al. (2008) Nucleic Acids Res 36, 462-76.
  5. Belova, G.I. et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 8080-8.
  6. Catez, F. et al. (2002) EMBO Rep 3, 760-6.
  7. Lim, J.H. et al. (2005) EMBO J 24, 3038-48.
  8. Lim, J.H. et al. (2004) Mol Cell 15, 573-84.
  9. Postnikov, Y.V. et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 15092-9.
  10. Rattner, B.P. et al. (2009) Mol Cell 34, 620-6.
  11. Furusawa, T. et al. (2006) Mol Cell Biol 26, 592-604.
  12. Lehtonen, S. and Lehtonen, E. (2001) Differentiation 67, 154-63.
  13. Feng, Y. et al. (2005) J Leukoc Biol 78, 1136-41.
  14. Porkka, K. et al. (2002) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99, 7444-9.
  15. Isoai, A. et al. (1992) Cancer Res 52, 1422-6.

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Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

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