Cell Signaling Technology

Product Pathways - Metabolism

Thymidine Kinase 1 Antibody #8960

No. Size Price
8960S 100 µl ( 10 western blots ) ¥3,100.00 现货查询 购买询价
8960 carrier free & custom formulation / quantityemail request
Applications Dilution Species-Reactivity Sensitivity MW (kDa) Isotype
W 1:1000 Human,Monkey, Endogenous 26 Rabbit
IP 1:50

Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.

Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation,

Specificity / Sensitivity

Thymidine Kinase 1 Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total TK1 protein. This antibody does not cross-react with TK2 protein.

Thymidine Kinase 1 Antibody能够检测内源性TK1总蛋白水平。该抗体不会与TK2产生交叉反应。

Source / Purification

Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Gly213 of human TK1 protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.

该多克隆抗体是由合成的人源TK1蛋白甘氨酸(213位)肽段免疫动物而制备的。抗体由protein A和肽亲和层析技术纯化。

Western Blotting

Western Blotting

Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Thymidine Kinase 1 Antibody.

Western blot 检测多种细胞系提取物,使用抗体为 Thymidine Kinase 1 Antibody。

Background

Thymidine kinases play a critical role in generating the DNA synthetic precursor deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) by catalyzing the phosphotransfer of phosphate from ATP to deoxythymidine (dT) and thymidine (T) in the cell. There are two known thymidine kinases, cytoplasmic thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) (1,2). Unlike TK2, which is not modulated by the cell cycle, TK1 expression and activity is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, accumulating during G1-phase to peak levels in S-phase before being degraded prior to cell division (3,4). Stability, but not activity, may be regulated via phosphorylation of TK1 at Ser13 by Cdc2 and/or Cdk2, but the precise mode of regulation remains elusive (5). These observations indicate that TK1 might be a useful marker of cell proliferation; however, recent studies have shown that TK1 plays a more significant role in the DNA damage response (6). Genotoxic stress promotes increased TK1 expression and kinase activity resulting in reduced cellular apoptosis and enhanced DNA repair efficiency (6). More importantly, numerous studies show that TK1 expression and activity are upregulated during neoplasia and disease progression in humans, and increased serum levels of TK1 correlate with poor prognosis and decreased survival in patients with various types of advanced tumors (7-12).

胸苷激酶催化细胞内ATP中磷酸基转移到脱氧胸苷(DT)和胸腺嘧啶(T),在产生DNA合成前体脱氧胸苷三磷酸(dTTP)的过程中发挥了关键作用。有两个已知的胸苷激酶,细胞质胸苷激酶1(TK1)和线粒体胸苷激酶(TK2)(1,2)。与不受细胞周期调控的TK2不同,TK1的表达和活性的调节是以细胞周期依赖的方式,从G1期期间积累到S期细胞分裂之前尚未被降解时处于峰值(3,4)。TK1稳定,但没有活性,可能经cdc2和/或CDK2调节Ser13磷酸化而被调控,但精确的调控模式仍然是不明确(5)。这些结果表明,TK1可能对于细胞增殖是一个有价值的标记物,然而,最近的研究表明,TK1在DNA损伤应答方面发挥着更为显着的作用(6)。基因毒性胁迫促进增加了TK1的表达和激酶活性,从而减少细胞凋亡并增强DNA修复效率(6)。更重要的是,许多研究表明,在各类晚期肿瘤患者发生瘤变和疾病恶化时,TK1的表达和活性上调,增加TK1相关的血清水平,同时预后较差,存活率下降(7-12)。

  1. Aufderklamm, S. et al. (2012) Cancer Lett 316, 6-10.
  2. Munch-Petersen, B. (2010) Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 29, 363-9.
  3. Bello, L.J. (1974) Exp Cell Res 89, 263-74.
  4. Littlefield, J.W. (1966) Biochim Biophys Acta 114, 398-403.
  5. Chang, Z.F. et al. (1998) J Biol Chem 273, 12095-100.
  6. Chen, Y.L. et al. (2010) J Biol Chem 285, 27327-35.
  7. Hannigan, B.M. et al. (1993) Cancer Biother 8, 189-97.
  8. Pan, Z.L. et al. (2010) J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 136, 1193-9.
  9. Chen, Y. et al. (2010) Int J Clin Oncol 15, 359-68.
  10. Konoplev, S.N. et al. (2010) Am J Clin Pathol 134, 472-7.
  11. Xu, Y. et al. (2012) Tumour Biol 33, 475-83.
  12. Alegre, M.M. et al. (2012) J Oncol 2012, 575647.

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Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

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