Product Pathways - Apoptosis
Phospho-RIP (Ser166) (D1L3S) Rabbit mAb #65746
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Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting,
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-RIP (Ser166) (D1L3S) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of RIP protein only when phosphorylated at Ser166.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser166 of human RIP protein.
Western blot analysis of HT-29 cells, untreated (-) or treated with combinations of the following treatments as indicated: Z-VAD (20 μM, added 30 min prior to other compounds; +), human TNF-α (hTNF-α, 20 ng/ml, 7 hr; +), SM-164 (100 nM, 7 hr; +), and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1, 50 μM, 7 hr; +), using Phospho-RIP (Ser166) (D1L3S) Rabbit mAb (upper) or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).
The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine-threonine kinases (RIP, RIP2, RIP3, and RIP4) are important regulators of cellular stress that trigger pro-survival and inflammatory responses through the activation of NF-κB, as well as pro-apoptotic pathways (1). In addition to the kinase domain, RIP contains a death domain responsible for interaction with the death domain receptor Fas and recruitment to TNF-R1 through interaction with TRADD (2,3). RIP-deficient cells show a failure in TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, making the cells more sensitive to apoptosis (4,5). RIP also interacts with TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and can recruit IKKs to the TNF-R1 signaling complex via interaction with NEMO, leading to IκB phosphorylation and degradation (6,7). Overexpression of RIP induces both NF-κB activation and apoptosis (2,3). Caspase-8-dependent cleavage of the RIP death domain can trigger the apoptotic activity of RIP (8).
Necroptosis, a regulated pathway for necrotic cell death, is triggered by a number of inflammatory signals including cytokines in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, pathogen sensors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), and ischemic injury (9,10). The process is negatively regulated by caspases and is initiated through a complex containing the RIP and RIP3 kinases, typically referred to as the necrosome. Necroptosis is inhibited by a small molecule inhibitor of RIP, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) (11). Research studies show that necroptosis contributes to a number of pathological conditions, and Nec-1 has been shown to provide neuroprotection in models such as ischemic brain injury (12). RIP is phosphorylated at several sites within the kinase domain that are sensitive to Nec-1, including Ser14, Ser15, Ser161, and Ser166 (13).
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Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
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