Cell Signaling Technology

Product Pathways - Chromatin Regulation / Epigenetics

HMGN1 Antibody #5692

No. Size Price
5692S 100 µl ( 10 western blots ) ¥3,100.00 现货查询 购买询价
5692 carrier free & custom formulation / quantityemail request
Applications Dilution Species-Reactivity Sensitivity MW (kDa) Isotype
W 1:1000 Human,Rat,Monkey, Endogenous 18 Rabbit
IF-IC 1:1600

Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.

Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry),

Homology

Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Bovine,

Specificity / Sensitivity

HMGN1 Antibody recognizes endogenous levels of total HMGN1 protein. This antibody does not cross-react with other HMGN proteins, including HMGN2, HMGN3, HMGN4, and HMGN5.

HMGN1 Antibody能够检测内源性HMGN1总蛋白水平。该抗体不能与其它HMGN蛋白发生交叉反应,包含HMGN2、HMGN3、HMGN4和HMGN5蛋白。

Source / Purification

Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Val65 of human HMGN1 protein. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.

通过合成的与人源HMGN1蛋白Val65位点周围相应的多肽片段去免疫动物从而制备出此多克隆抗体。通过蛋白A和多肽亲和层析纯化获得。

IF-IC

IF-IC

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of COS-7 cells using HMGN1 Antibody (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DY-554 phallodin (red).

使用HMGN1 Antibody (绿色)标记,共聚焦免疫荧光分析COS-7细胞。DY-554 phalloidin标记微丝蛋白(红色)。

Western Blotting

Western Blotting

Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using HMGN1 Antibody.

使用HMGN1 Antibody,免疫印迹(Western blot)分析不同细胞中HMGN1的蛋白水平。

Background

High mobility group (HMG) proteins are a superfamily of abundant and ubiquitous nuclear proteins that bind DNA without sequence specificity and induce structural changes to the chromatin fiber to regulate access to the underlying DNA. The HMGN family of proteins, which includes five members (HMGN1-5), is characterized by the presence of several conserved protein domains: a positively charged domain, a nucleosome binding domain, and an acidic C-terminal chromatin-unfolding domain (1,2). HMGN proteins function in transcriptional regulation and are recruited to gene promoters by transcription factors such as estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), serum responsive factor (SRF) and PITX2, where they can facilitate either gene activation or repression (3-5). HMGN proteins bind specifically to nucleosomal DNA and reduce the compaction of the chromatin fiber, in part by competing with linker histone H1 for nucleosome binding (6). In addition, HMGN proteins act to modulate local levels of post-translational histone modifications, decreasing phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 and histone H2A at Ser1, and increasing acetylation of histone H3 at Lys14 (7-9). HMGN proteins can also modulate the activity of several chromatin-remodeling factors and restrict nucleosome mobility (10).

HMGN1 (also known as HMG14) expression is tightly linked to cellular differentiation. HMGN1 is ubiquitous and highly expressed in all embryonic tissues. During mouse embryogenesis, expression is down-regulated throughout the embryo, except in committed but continuously renewing cell types undergoing active differentiation, such as the basal layer of the epithelium and kidney cells undergoing mesenchyme to epithelium transition (11,12). HMGN1 expression is also down-regulated during myogenesis, erythropoiesis, and osteogenesis (11). Over-expression of HMGN1 inhibits myotube formation in C2C12 myoblast cells and chondrocyte differentiation in primary limb bud mesenchymal cells, suggesting a role in blocking cellular differentiation (11,13). HGMN1-/- mice appear normal, most likely due to partial redundancy with other family members such as HMGN2. However, these mice are hypersensitive to various stress conditions, including exposure to UV light and ionizing radiation (IR) (14,15). Further studies have shown that HMGN1 is required for efficient transcription-coupled repair (TCR) following UV treatment, and proper activation of ATM following IR treatment, both of which require HMGN1 chromatin binding activity, suggesting a direct role for HMGN1 in chromatin remodeling during DNA repair (14-17).

High mobility group (HMG)蛋白是一个大量和广泛的细胞核蛋白超级家族,该家族在没有序列特异性的情况下结合DNA,并且诱导染色质纤维的结构性改变从而调节潜在的DNA通路。HMGN 蛋白家族包括五种成员(HMGN1-5),它是以数种保守蛋白结构域存在为特征:一个正电荷区域、一个核小体结合区域和一个酸性的C端染色质-非折叠区域(1,2)。HMGN蛋白具有转录调节的功能,并且通过转录因子被招募到基因启动子,例如 estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)、serum responsive factor (SRF)和PITX2蛋白,在启动子区域能有助于基因的激活或抑制(3-5)。HMGN蛋白特异性结合到核小体结构的DNA,并且减少染色质纤维的压缩,对于核小体的结合部分程度上通过竞争histone H1(6)。此外,HMGN蛋白可以调节翻译后组蛋白修饰的局部水平,这减少了histone H3蛋白Ser10位点和histone H2A蛋白Ser1位点的磷酸化,以及增加了histone H3蛋白Lys14位点的乙酰化(7-9)。HMGN蛋白也能调节数个染色质重塑因子的活性和限制核小体移动(10)。

HMGN1 (又称为HMG14)蛋白表达是紧密联系着细胞内分化。HMGN1蛋白在所有胚胎组织中广泛高度表达。在小鼠胚胎形成期间,在整个胚胎过程中其表达水平是下调的,除了确定在经历激活分化下会持续不断的自我更新细胞形态,例如上皮和肾脏细胞的基底层经历上皮细胞转化的过程(11,12)。HMGN1蛋白表达在肌细胞生成、红血球生成和成骨生成中也下调(11)。HMGN1蛋白的过表达抑制在C2C12成肌细胞中肌管形成和在主肢芽间质细胞中软骨细胞分化,这认为是在细胞内分化中有着一定作用(11,13)。HGMN1-/-小鼠是正常的,这很可能是由于其它家族成员例如HMGN2蛋白的部分冗余。然而,这些老鼠对于不同的应激条件是高度敏感,包括紫外照射和电离辐射 (ionizing radiation,IR)(14,15)。进一步研究显示HMGN1蛋白对于紫外照射下有效的转录偶联修复(TCR)和电离辐射下ATM的正确激活是需要的,这两者都需要HMGN1蛋白染色质结合活性,这认为在DNA修复中HMGN1蛋白在染色质重塑中有个直接作用(14-17)。

  1. Hock, R. et al. (2007) Trends Cell Biol 17, 72-9.
  2. Gerlitz, G. Biochim Biophys Acta 1799, 80-5.
  3. Zhu, N. and Hansen, U. (2007) Mol Cell Biol 27, 8859-73.
  4. Amen, M. et al. (2008) Nucleic Acids Res 36, 462-76.
  5. Belova, G.I. et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 8080-8.
  6. Catez, F. et al. (2002) EMBO Rep 3, 760-6.
  7. Lim, J.H. et al. (2005) EMBO J 24, 3038-48.
  8. Lim, J.H. et al. (2004) Mol Cell 15, 573-84.
  9. Postnikov, Y.V. et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 15092-9.
  10. Rattner, B.P. et al. (2009) Mol Cell 34, 620-6.
  11. Furusawa, T. et al. (2006) Mol Cell Biol 26, 592-604.
  12. Lehtonen, S. and Lehtonen, E. (2001) Differentiation 67, 154-63.
  13. Pash, J.M. et al. (1993) J Biol Chem 268, 13632-8.
  14. Birger, Y. et al. (2003) EMBO J 22, 1665-75.
  15. Birger, Y. et al. (2005) Cancer Res 65, 6711-8.
  16. Fousteri, M. et al. (2006) Mol Cell 23, 471-82.
  17. Kim, Y.C. et al. (2009) Nat Cell Biol 11, 92-6.

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