Product Pathways - Autophagy Signaling
Phospho-Atg13 (Ser355) Antibody #43533
|43533S||100 µl ( 10 western blots )||￥3,900.00 现货查询||购买询价|
|43533||carrier free & custom formulation / quantity||email request|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting,
Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Mouse, Rat,
Specificity / Sensitivity
Phospho-Atg13 (Ser355) Antibody recognizes transfected levels of human Atg13 protein only when phosphorylated at Ser355 (or Ser354 for mouse Atg13).
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser355 of human Atg13 protein (Ser318 of isoform 2 of Atg13). Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Western blot analysis of extracts from 293T cells, mock transfected (-) or transfected with a construct expressing Myc/DDK-tagged full-length human Atg13 (hAtg13-Myc/DDK; +) or mouse ULK1 (mULK1; +), using Phospho-Atg13 (Ser355) Antibody (upper) or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).
Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has also been associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegeneration, infection, and cancer (3). The molecular machinery of autophagy was largely discovered in yeast and referred to as autophagy-related (Atg) genes.
Atg13/Apg13 was originally identified in yeast as a constitutively expressed protein that was genetically linked to Atg1/Apg1, a protein kinase required for autophagy (4). Overexpression of Atg1 suppresses the defects in autophagy observed in Atg13 mutants (4). Autophagy requires a direct association between Atg1 and Atg13, and is inhibited by TOR-dependent phosphorylation of Atg13 under high-nutrient conditions (5). Similarly, mammalian Atg13 forms a complex with the Atg1 homologues ULK1/2, along with FIP200, which localizes to autophagic isolation membranes and regulates autophagosome biogenesis (6-8). mTOR phosphorylates both Atg13 and ULK1, suppressing ULK1 kinase activity and autophagy (7-9). ULK1 can directly phosphorylate Atg13 at a yet unidentified site, presumably to promote autophagy (7,8). Additional studies suggest that Atg13 and FIP200 can function independently of ULK1 and ULK2 to induce autophagy through an unknown mechanism (10).
ULK1-dependent phosphorylation of Atg13 at Ser355, which corresponds to Ser318 of isoform 2 of Atg13, leads to the recruitment of Atg13 to damaged mitochondria, enabling efficient mitophagy (11).
- Reggiori, F. and Klionsky, D.J. (2002) Eukaryot Cell 1, 11-21.
- Codogno, P. and Meijer, A.J. (2005) Cell Death Differ 12 Suppl 2, 1509-18.
- Levine, B. and Yuan, J. (2005) J Clin Invest 115, 2679-88.
- Funakoshi, T. et al. (1997) Gene 192, 207-13.
- Kamada, Y. et al. (2000) J Cell Biol 150, 1507-13.
- Ganley, I.G. et al. (2009) J Biol Chem 284, 12297-305.
- Hosokawa, N. et al. (2009) Mol Biol Cell 20, 1981-91.
- Jung, C.H. et al. (2009) Mol Biol Cell 20, 1992-2003.
- Kim, J. et al. (2011) Nat Cell Biol 13, 132-41.
- Alers, S. et al. (2011) Autophagy 7, 1423-33.
- Joo, J.H. et al. (2011) Mol Cell 43, 572-85.
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