Cell Signaling Technology

Product Pathways - Nuclear Receptor Signaling

Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody #4161

No. Size Price
4161S 100 µl ( 10 western blots ) ¥4,050.00 现货查询 购买询价 防伪查询
4161 carrier free & custom formulation / quantityemail request
Applications Dilution Species-Reactivity Sensitivity MW (kDa) Isotype
W 1:1000 Human,Mouse, Endogenous 95 Rabbit
IP 1:50
IF-IC 1:1600

Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.

Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry),


Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Mouse,

Specificity / Sensitivity

Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody detects endogenous levels of glucocorticoid receptor only when phosphorylated at serine 211. This antibody does not cross-react with other unrelated phosphorylated proteins.只有当丝氨酸(211位)磷酸化时,Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody能够检测内源性水平的糖皮质激素受体。该抗体不与其他不相关的磷酸化蛋白发生交叉反应。

Source / Purification

Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding serine 211 of human glucocorticoid receptor. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.该多克隆抗体通过用合成磷酸肽免疫动物制备,该合成磷酸肽是人糖皮质激素受体丝氨酸(211位)附近的残基。抗体由蛋白A和肽亲和层析纯化。

Western Blotting

Western Blotting

Western blot analysis of extracts from A549(CCL-185) cells, untreated or stimulated with dexamethasone (100 nM for 1 hr), using Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody (upper) or control glucocorticoid receptor antibody (lower).Western blot方法检测A549(CCL-185)细胞提取物,细胞不处理或用地塞米松(100 nM ,1hr)刺激,使用的抗体为Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody (上图)或control glucocorticoid receptor antibody (下图).



Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of HeLa cells, dexamethasone-treated (left) or lambda phosphatase-treated (right) using Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody (green). Actin filaments have been labeled with DY-554 phalloidin (red).激光共聚焦免疫荧光法检测HeLa细胞,细胞用地塞米松处理(左图)或λ磷酸酶处理(右图),使用的抗体为Phospho-Glucocorticoid Receptor (Ser211) Antibody (绿色)。肌动蛋白丝用DY-554鬼笔环肽标记(红色)。


Glucocorticoid hormones control cellular proliferation, inflammation, and metabolism through their association with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/NR3C1, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors (1). GR is composed of several conserved structural elements, including a COOH-terminal ligand-binding domain (which also contains residues critical for receptor dimerization and hormone-dependent gene transactivation), a neighboring hinge region containing nuclear localization signals, a central zinc-finger-containing DNA-binding domain, and an NH2-terminal variable region that participates in ligand-independent gene transcription. In the absence of hormone, a significant population of GR is localized to the cytoplasm in an inactive form via its association with regulatory chaperone proteins such as HSP90, HSP70, and FKBP52. On hormone binding, GR is released from the chaperone complex and translocates to the cell nucleus as a dimer to associate with specific DNA sequences termed glucocorticoid response elements (GREs), and increases or represses transcription of specific target genes (2). It was demonstrated that GR-mediated transcriptional activation is modulated by phosphorylation (3-5). Although GR can be basally phosphorylated in the absence of hormone, it becomes hyperphosphorylated upon binding receptor agonists. It has been suggested that hormone-dependent phosphorylation of GR may determine target promoter specificity, cofactor interaction, strength and duration of receptor signaling, receptor stability, and receptor subcellular localization (3). Indeed Ser211 of human GR is phosphorylated to a greater extent in the presence of hormone and biochemical fractionation studies following hormone treatment indicate that Ser211-phosphorylated GR is found in the nucleus (3). Thus, Ser211 phosphorylation is a biomarker for activated GR in vivo. An added layer of complexity to GR signaling lies in the ability of mutiple isoforms to be generated through both alternative splicing and the use of alternative translation intiation start sites, thus increasing the repertoire of functional signaling homo- and heterodimers (6,7). 糖皮质激素通过与转录因子的核激素受体超家族成员——糖皮质激素受体(GR)/ NR3C1联合,控制细胞增殖、炎症和代谢(1)。GR是由一些保守的结构元件,包括一个COOH-末端配体结合域(其中还包含受体二聚化和激素依赖型基因转录的关键残基),一个含有核定位信号的相邻的铰链区,一个含DNA结合结构域的中央锌指和一个参与配体无关的基因转录的NH 2 - 末端可变区。在没有激素的情况下,一个明显的GR类群以无活性方式通过其监管伴侣蛋白,如热休克蛋白90、热休克蛋白70和FKBP52,定位到细胞质中。对于激素结合,GR从分子伴侣复合物释放并作为二聚体转移到细胞核,与特定的DNA序列一起被称为糖皮质激素反应元件(GREs),增加或抑制特定的靶基因转录(2)。据证明,GR-介导的转录激活受磷酸化调节(3-5)。虽然GR可以在没有激素的情况下初级磷酸化。建议GR激素依赖型磷酸化可能决定靶启动子的特异性、辅助因子相互作用、受体信号的强度和持续时间、受体的稳定性和受体的亚细胞定位(3)。事实上,GR磷酸化更大程度上是在激素和生化分馏研究存在的情况下,可在细胞核中发现激素治疗表明丝氨酸(211位)-磷酸化GR(3)。因此,丝氨酸(211)磷酸化是体内激活GR的生物标志物。GR信号附加层的复杂性在于通过选择性剪接和使用选择性翻译启动起始位点产生多发亚型的能力,从而增加了功能信号同源和异源二聚体库(6,7)。

  1. Yamamoto, K.R. (1985) Annu. Rev. Genet 19, 209-252.
  2. Necela, B.M. and Cidlowski, J.A. (2003) Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 24, 58-61.
  3. Wang, Z. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 26573-26580.
  4. Rogatsky, I. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 14315-14321.
  5. Krstic, M. D. et al. (1997) Mol. Cell. Biol. 17, 3947-3954.
  6. Yudt, M.R. and Cidlowski, J.A. (2001) Mol Endocrinol 15, 1093-103.
  7. Lu, N.Z. and Cidlowski, J.A. (2005) Mol Cell 18, 331-42.

Application References

Have you published research involving the use of our products? If so we'd love to hear about it. Please let us know!


Companion Products

For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

用户评论 --- 共 0


我要参与评论 :