Cell Signaling Technology

Product Pathways - Chromatin Regulation / Epigenetics

HMGB1 Antibody #3935

High mobility group   HMG1  

No. Size Price
3935S 100 µl ( 10 western blots ) ¥3,100.00 现货查询 购买询价
3935 carrier free & custom formulation / quantityemail request
Applications Dilution Species-Reactivity Sensitivity MW (kDa) Isotype
W 1:1000 Human,Mouse,Rat,Monkey, Endogenous 29 Rabbit
IF-IC 1:100

Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.

Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry),

Homology

Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Hamster, Bovine, Pig, Horse,

Specificity / Sensitivity

HMGB1 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total HMGB1 protein. The antibody does not cross-react with other HMG proteins, including HMGB2 and HMGB3.

HMGB1 Antibody能够检测内源性HMGB1总蛋白水平。该抗体不能与其它HMG蛋白发生交叉反应,包含HMGB2和HMGB3蛋白。

Source / Purification

Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the human HMGB1 protein. Antibodies are purified by peptide affinity chromatography.

通过合成的与人源HMGB1蛋白相应的多肽片段去免疫动物从而制备出此多克隆抗体。通过多肽亲和层析纯化获得。

Western Blotting

Western Blotting

Western blot analysis of extracts from various cell lines using HMGB1 Antibody.

使用HMGB1 Antibody,免疫印迹(Western blot)分析不同细胞中HMGB1的蛋白水平。

IF-IC

IF-IC

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of COS cells using HMGB1 Antibody (green). Actin filaments were labeled using DY-554 phalloidin (red).

使用HMGB1 Antibody (绿色)标记,共聚焦免疫荧光分析COS细胞。DY-554 phalloidin标记微丝蛋白(红色)。

Background

High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins that contain HMG box domains (1,2). All three family members (HMGB1, HMGB2, and HMGB3) contain two HMG box domains and a C-terminal acidic domain. HMGB1 is a widely expressed and highly abundant protein (2). HMGB2 is widely expressed during embryonic development, but is restricted to lymphoid organs and testis in adult animals (3). HMGB3 is only expressed during embryogenesis (4). While expression varies, the biochemical properties of the different family members may be indistinguishable. The HMG box domains facilitate the binding of HMGB proteins to the minor groove of DNA, which results in local bending of the DNA double helix (1,2). HMGB proteins are recruited by and help facilitate the assembly of site-specific DNA binding proteins to their cognate binding sites in chromatin. For example, HMGB1 facilitates the binding of Hox proteins, Oct-1, p53, Rel proteins, and steroid hormone receptor proteins to their target gene promoters (1,2). In addition to their functions in the nucleus, HMGB proteins play a significant role in extracellular signaling associated with inflammation (5,6). HMGB1 is massively released into the extracellular environment during cell necrosis, but not apoptosis. Extracellular HMGB1 "alarms" the innate immune system by acting as a chemoattractant for inflammatory leukocytes, smooth muscle cells, and stem cells, functioning as an immune adjuvant for soluble and particulate antigens, and triggering activation of T cells and dendritic cells. In addition, activated monocytes, macrophages and, dendritic cells also secrete HMGB1, forming a positive feedback loop that results in the release of additional cytokines and neutrophils. Hypoxia has also been shown to cause the release of HMGB1 in the liver, and some studies suggest a role for extracellular HMGB1 in tumor homeostasis (5,6).

High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1)蛋白属于一个高度保守蛋白家族,其包含HMG box结构域(1,2)。所有三个家族成员(HMGB1、HMGB2和HMGB3)都包含两个HMG box结构域和一个羧基端酸性域。HMGB1蛋白是广泛表达和高度丰富的蛋白质(2)。HMGB2蛋白在胚胎发育期间高度表达,但是在成年动物中淋巴器官和睾丸中表达受限。在胚胎形成期间只有HMGB3蛋白被表达(4)。当表达不同时,不同家族成员的生化性能可能没有区别。HMG box结构域有助于HMGB蛋白结合到DNA的小沟,这导致DNA双螺旋的局部弯曲(1,2)。HMGB蛋白被招募,并且有助于位点特异性DNA结合蛋白装配到染色质它们的同源的结合位点。例如,HMGB1蛋白有助于Hox蛋白、Oct-1、p53、Rel蛋白和类固醇激素受体蛋白结合到它们的靶基因启动子上(1,2)。除了在细胞核内它们的功能之外,HMGB蛋白在与炎症有关的细胞外信号起着重要作用(5,6)。在细胞死亡期间而不是凋亡,HMGB1蛋白大量的释放到细胞外环境。通过作为一个炎性白细胞、平滑肌细胞和干细胞的化学引诱物,细胞外的HMGB1蛋白使自身免疫系统增强警戒性,这对于可溶性和颗粒抗原作为一个免疫辅助功能,并且引起T细胞和树突细胞激活。另外,活化的单核细胞、巨噬细胞和树突细胞也分泌HMGB1蛋白,这形成一个正向反馈环,从而导致额外的细胞因子和中性粒细胞的释放。研究证明在肝脏中低氧条件可引起HMGB1蛋白的释放,并且一些研究认为细胞外HMGB1蛋白在肿瘤稳态中起着一定作用(5,6)。

  1. Thomas, J.O. and Travers, A.A. (2001) Trends Biochem Sci 26, 167-74.
  2. Müller, S. et al. (2004) J Intern Med 255, 332-43.
  3. Ronfani, L. et al. (2001) Development 128, 1265-73.
  4. Vaccari, T. et al. (1998) Genomics 49, 247-52.
  5. Campana, L. et al. (2008) Curr Opin Immunol 20, 518-23.
  6. Klune, J.R. et al. (2008) Mol Med 14, 476-84.

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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

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