Cell Signaling Technology

Product Pathways - Apoptosis

Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody #2329


No. Size Price
2329S 100 µl ( 10 western blots ) ¥4,050.00 现货查询 购买询价 防伪查询
2329 carrier free & custom formulation / quantityemail request
Applications Dilution Species-Reactivity Sensitivity MW (kDa) Isotype
W 1:1000 Human, Endogenous 43 Rabbit

Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.

Applications Key: W=Western Blotting,


Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology: Mouse, Rat, Monkey,

Specificity / Sensitivity

Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody detects endogenous levels of PAR-4 when phosphorylated at Thr163 (Thr163 corresponds to human sequence and is equivalent to Thr155 in rat and Thr156 in mouse).

Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody能够检测内源性水平的Thr163磷酸化的PAR-4蛋白(Thr163对应于人类基因组序列相当于在大鼠Thr155和小鼠Thr156的位点)。

Source / Purification

Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Thr163 of human PAR-4 (Thr155 in rat and Thr156 in mouse). Antibodies were purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.

该多克隆抗体是采用合成的人源PAR-4蛋白Thr163周围残基相对应的肽段免疫动物而制备的(大鼠Thr155和小鼠Thr156)。抗体由protein A和肽亲和层析技术纯化。

Western Blotting

Western Blotting

Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells, untreated or forskolin-treated (30 μM), using Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody (upper) or total PAR-4 Antibody #2328 (lower).

Western blot 检测HeLa细胞提取物,未处理或forskolin (30 μM)处理,使用抗体为Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody (上图)或 total PAR-4 Antibody #2328 (下图)。

Western Blotting

Western Blotting

Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells, untreated or treated with Calyculin A (100 nM, 5 minutes), using Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody (upper) or total PAR-4 Antibody #2328 (lower).

Western blot 检测HeLa细胞提取物,未处理或Calyculin A (100 nM, 5 min)处理,使用抗体为Phospho-PAR-4 (Thr163) Antibody (上图)或 total PAR-4 Antibody #2328 (下图)。


PAR-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) was identified as a protein that is upregulated in prostate tumor cells undergoing apoptosis (1). Additionally, in parallel studies PAR-4 was found in the yeast two-hybrid system to bind to the Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 and may modulate WT1-medated transcriptional activation (2). PAR-4 contains a leucine zipper domain and a death domain and has been implicated as an effector of apoptosis during tumorigenesis as well as in neurodegenerative disorders (3,4). PAR-4 is widely expressed in normal tissues but can be downregulated in some tumor types. The mechanism of PAR-4 mediated apoptosis regulation appears to be complex and dependent on the cellular context. Studies have indicated roles for PAR-4 in activation of the Fas-FADD-caspase-8 pathway as well as inhibition of the NF-κB pro-survival pathway (5-7). Its activity is likely to depend on the cellular context and post-translational modifications. For instance, phosphorylation of PAR-4 by Akt prevents its nuclear translocation thereby promoting cell surivival (8). In contrast, phoshorylation of rat PAR-4 at T155 by PKA appears to positively regulate its apoptotic activity (9).

PAR-4(前列腺细胞凋亡应答元件-4)是一种蛋白质,研究发现,它在发生细胞凋亡的前列腺肿瘤细胞中表达上调(1)。此外,在平行实验中,通过酵母双杂交系统发现PAR-4与肾母细胞瘤有关,抑制蛋白WT1,并可能调节WT1介导的转录激活(2)。PAR-4包含一个亮氨酸拉链结构域和一个死亡结构域,是肿瘤发生以及神经退行性疾病过程中细胞凋亡的效应子(3,4)。PAR-4在正常组织中广泛表达,但可以在某些类型的肿瘤中下调表达。PAR-4介导的凋亡调控的机制似乎很复杂,依赖于细胞内物质。有研究表明,PAR-4在激活Fas-FADD-caspase-8途径以及抑制NF-κB促生存途径中发挥着重要作用(5-7)。其活性可能取决于细胞内物质和翻译后修饰。例如,Akt作用下的PAR-4磷酸化能够防止其核易位从而促进细胞存活(8)。相比之下,大鼠PAR-4通过PKA 在T155 位的磷酸化能够正向调控其凋亡活性(9)。

  1. Sells, S.F. et al. (1997) Mol. Cell Biol. 17, 3823-3832.
  2. Johnstone, R.W. et al. (1996) Mol. Cell Biol. 16, 6945-6956.
  3. Guo, Q. et al. (1998) Nat. Med. 4, 957-962.
  4. El-Guendy, N. and Rangnekar, V.M. (2003) Exp. Cell Res. 283, 51-66.
  5. Chakraborty, M. et al. (2001) Cancer Res. 61, 7255-7263.
  6. Díaz-Meco, M.T. et al. (1996) Cell 86, 777-786.
  7. Diaz-Meco, M.T. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 19606-79612.
  8. Goswami, A. et al. (2005) Mol. Cell 20, 33-44.
  9. Gurumurthy, S. et al. (2005) Mol. Cell Biol. 25, 1146-1161.

Application References

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