Cell Signaling Technology

Product Pathways - Lymphocyte Signaling

CTLA-4 (D4E9I) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #15162

No. Size Price
15162S 100 µl ( 50 tests ) ¥3,986.00 现货查询 购买询价
15162 carrier free & custom formulation / quantityemail request
Applications Dilution Species-Reactivity Sensitivity MW (kDa) Isotype
F 1:50 Human, Endogenous Rabbit IgG

Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.

Applications Key: F=Flow Cytometry,

Specificity / Sensitivity

CTLA-4 (D4E9I) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total CTLA-4 protein.

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Asp100 of human CTLA-4 protein.

Description

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated CTLA-4 (D4E9I) Rabbit mAb #15119.

Flow Cytometry

Flow Cytometry

Flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, untreated (left) or PHA-treated (1 µg/ml, 72 hr; right), using CTLA-4 (D4E9I) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) and co-stained with a CD3 antibody. Analysis was performed on cells in the lymphocyte gate.

Background

Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4, CD152) is an Ig superfamily member that negatively regulates early T cell activation (1-4). The CTLA-4 protein is primarily expressed on T cells, including CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD4+ helper T cells, and CD4+/FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (1,2). CTLA-4 protein competes with CD28 for B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) binding at the cell surface, which results in the down regulation of T cell activity (5). The activation of SHP-2 and PP2A downstream of CTLA-4 attenuates TCR signaling (6). Research studies indicate that CTLA4 knockout mice display lymphoproliferative disorders leading to early death, confirming the role of CTLA-4 as a negative regulator of T cells (7). Mutations in the corresponding CTLA4 gene are associated with multiple disorders, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, celiac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type V autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (8,9). Additional studies demonstrate that CTLA-4 blockade is an effective strategy for tumor immunotherapy (10-12).

  1. Brunet, J.F. et al. (1987) Nature 328, 267-70.
  2. Brunet, J.F. et al. (1988) Immunol Rev 103, 21-36.
  3. Dariavach, P. et al. (1988) Eur J Immunol 18, 1901-5.
  4. Linsley, P.S. (1995) J Exp Med 182, 289-92.
  5. Collins, A.V. et al. (2002) Immunity 17, 201-10.
  6. Rudd, C.E. et al. (2009) Immunol Rev 229, 12-26.
  7. Waterhouse, P. et al. (1995) Science 270, 985-8.
  8. Romo-Tena, J. et al. (2013) Autoimmun Rev 12, 1171-6.
  9. Wang, J. et al. (2014) PLoS One 9, e85982.
  10. Egen, J.G. et al. (2002) Nat Immunol 3, 611-8.
  11. Hodi, F.S. et al. (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100, 4712-7.
  12. Pardoll, D.M. (2012) Nat Rev Cancer 12, 252-64.

Application References

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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

Alexa Fluor is a registered trademark of Life Technologies Corporation.

This product is provided under an intellectual property license from Life Technologies Corporation. The transfer of this product is contingent on the buyer using the purchased product solely in research, including use with HCS or other automated imaging applications but excluding use in combination with DNA microarrays. The buyer must not sell or otherwise transfer this product or its components for (a) diagnostic, therapeutic or prophylactic purposes; (b) testing, analysis or screening services, or information in return for compensation on a per-test basis; (c) manufacturing or quality assurance or quality control, or (d) resale, whether or not resold for use in research. For information on purchasing a license to this product for purposes other than as described above, contact Life Technologies Corporation, 5791 Van Allen Way, Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA or outlicensing@lifetech.com.

Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

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