Cell Signaling Technology

Product Pathways - Screening Technologies

PathScan® Intracellular Signaling Membrane Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) #14471

Antibody Array   Signal Transduction   Signaling Hubs   Signaling intermediates   Signaling space  

REACTIVITY

No. Size Price
14471S 1 Kit ( 4 multiplexed assays ) ¥6,597.00 现货查询 购买询价
Kit Includes Quantity Applications Reactivity Homology† MW (kDa) Isotype
Array Membranes - Intracellular Signaling Array Kit (Membrane) 4 ea
Array 8-Well Dish - Membrane Array 1 ea
Array Diluent Buffer - Membrane Array 15 ml
Detection Ab Cocktail (10X) - Intracellular Signaling Array Kit (Membrane) 650 µl
HRP-Linked Streptavidin (10X) - Membrane Array 650 µl
SignalFire™ ECL Reagent #6883 6 ml
PathScan® Sandwich ELISA Lysis Buffer (1X) #7018 30 ml
20X Array Wash Buffer 15 ml
Chemiluminescent Development Folder 2

Specificity / Sensitivity

PathScan® Intracellular Signaling Membrane Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) detects the indicated cellular proteins and signaling nodes only when phosphorylated or cleaved at the specified residues (see Figure 1). No significant cross-reactivity has been observed between targets. This kit is optimized for cell lysates diluted to a total protein concentration between 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml (see kit protocol). This kit detects proteins from the indicated species as determined through in-house testing, but may also detect homologous proteins from other species.

Description

The PathScan® Intracellular Signaling Membrane Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) is a nitrocellulose membrane antibody array founded upon the sandwich immunoassay principle. The array kit allows for the simultaneous detection of 18 important and well-characterized signaling molecules when phosphorylated or cleaved. Target-specific capture antibodies have been spotted in duplicate onto individual nitrocellulose membranes. Each kit contains 4 membranes, allowing the user to test up to 4 samples and generate 72 data points in a single experiment. Cell lysate is incubated on the membrane followed by a biotinylated detection antibody cocktail. Streptavidin-conjugated HRP and a chemiluminescent reagent are then used to visualize the bound detection antibody by chemiluminescence. An image of the membrane can be captured with either a digital imaging system or standard chemiluminescent film. The image can be analyzed visually or the spot intensities quantified using array analysis software.

Figure 1. Target map of the PathScan® Intracellular Signaling Membrane Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout).

Figure 2. MCF7 cells were grown to 80% confluency and then serum starved overnight. Cells were either untreated (left panel) or treated with Human Insulin-like Growth Factor I (hIGF-I) #8917 (100 ng/ml, 20 min; right panel). Cell extracts were prepared and analyzed using the PathScan® Intracellular Signaling Membrane Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout). Images were acquired by briefly exposing the membranes to standard chemiluminescent film.

Figure 3. HT-29 cells were grown to 80% confluency and then either untreated (left panel) or UV-irradiated (30 mJ) and allowed to recover for 60 min (right panel). Cell extracts were prepared and analyzed using the PathScan® Intracellular Signaling Membrane Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout). Images were acquired by briefly exposing the membranes to standard chemiluminescent film.

Figure 4. HeLa cells were grown to 90% confluency and then either untreated (left panel) or treated with Staurosporine #9953 (1 μM, 3.5 hr; right panel). Cell extracts were prepared and analyzed using the PathScan® Intracellular Signaling Membrane Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout). Images were acquired by briefly exposing the membranes to standard chemiluminescent film.

Figure 5. A-431 cells were grown to 80% confluency and then serum starved overnight. Cells were either untreated (left panel) or treated with Human Epidermal Growth Factor (hEGF) #8916 (100 ng/ml, 5 min; right panel). Cell extracts were prepared and analyzed using the PathScan® Intracellular Signaling Membrane Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) #14471. Images were acquired by briefly exposing the membranes to standard chemiluminescent film.

Background

Phosphorylation and proteolysis are two widespread covalent post-translational modifications that represent important regulatory mechanisms in biology. Detection of these modifications on a set of cellular proteins playing a well-understood role in cell biology can provide a broad snapshot of intracellular signaling.

The MAPK/Erk cascade is one of the best characterized and widely studied signaling modules. It is involved in a broad range of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and motility. MAPK/Erk is activated by a wide range of extracellular signals including growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters. It is activated by dual phosphorylation at Thr202 and Tyr204 by the dual specificity kinases MEK1 and MEK2.

p38 and JNK MAPKs are core components of two additional structurally related signal transduction modules. p38 and JNK are activated through a similar dual phosphorylation mechanism by various MAPK kinases in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines, stressful conditions, or genotoxicity.

Stat1 and Stat3 are important signaling molecules that are involved in immunity and inflammation and can be activated by a variety of cytokines or growth factors. Stat1 and Stat3 are phosphorylated at Tyr701 or Tyr705, respectively, by cytokine receptor-tethered tyrosine kinases of the Jak family or, in some cases, by other tyrosine kinases such as Src.

Akt is a protein kinase generally activated in response to growth factor stimulation that transmits growth and survival signals. Phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 and Thr308 by TORC2 complex and PDK1, respectively, are reliable predictors of Akt activation. Phosphorylation of PRAS40 at Thr246 by Akt relieves PRAS40 inhibition of TORC1. Akt phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad at Ser112 and the multifunctional kinase GSK-3β at Ser9 inhibits their activity and promotes cell survival.

mTOR is an important signaling hub that is a major component of two macromolecular complexes, TORC1 and TORC2. mTOR is phosphorylated at Ser2448 and integrates growth factor signaling and nutrient availability, thus playing an important role in cell growth and homeostasis. mTORC1 phosphorylates p70 S6 Kinase at Thr389, leading to kinase activation and cell cycle progression. The S6 ribosomal protein is found downstream of p70 S6 Kinase and its phosphorylation at Ser235/236 reflects mTOR pathway activation and predicts cell cycle progression.

AMPK is an energy sensor that is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in response to elevated AMP levels. AMPK regulates fatty acid metabolism, as well as modulates protein synthesis and cell growth.

HSP27 is a mediator of cell stress that confers resistance to adverse environmental change. HSP27 is phosphorylated at Ser78 within the p38 MAPK pathway.

p53 plays an important role in cellular response to DNA damage and other genomic aberrations. Phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 by ATM/ATR or DNA-PK in response to DNA damage leads to its stabilization and accumulation.

Caspase-3 is a critical executor of apoptosis. Caspase-3 is activated by endoproteolytic cleavage at Asp175 and exerts its pro-apoptotic activity through cleavage of multiple cellular targets. PARP, an enzyme that is involved in DNA repair, is one of the main substrates of activated caspase-3. Cleavage at Asp214 leads to PARP inactivation. Increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP are reliable indicators of apoptosis.

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PathScan is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

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